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Biological Treatment


2-Stage Wet Fermentation Plant in Kirchstockach, Germany.

The representative average molecular formula, excluding nitrogen and other minor components, of biodegradable waste is C6H10O4. In Europe, this type of waste comprises some 50 – 65 percent of the waste composition and has average water content between 15 – 70 percent. Depending on the water content, the biodegradable waste can be divided into two groups: dry organic waste (e.g. yard waste, textiles, dry organic production waste, wood) and wet organic waste (e.g. food and canteen waste, fruits and vegetables, wet and liquid organic production waste).

Energy from the wet organic waste fraction can be obtained by fermenting it to produce biogas and then combusting the biogas to generate renewable energy or treating it to produce bio methane. During the fermentation process microorganisms decompose the available organic matter, reducing the volume and producing compost. The fermentation produces mainly CH4 and CO2 gas and a compost product suitable after further treatment as a soil enhancer.

Depending on the water content in the digester, the anaerobic digestion process can be classified into wet and dry fermentation. Wet fermentation refers to total solid content in the Digestor with less than 12 percent of dry matter, while dry fermentation refers to digester feed with 30 percent of dry matter or more.

Other biological treatment processes are the production of biochar or liquid fuel as well as composting.

See Also


Anaerobic Digestion Process
Mechanical Biological Treatment - MBT
Batch Dry Fermentation
Wet Anaerobic Digestion Plant
Refuse Derived Fuels - solid recovered fuels for the cement industry
Liquid Fuel
MBT Warsaw, Poland
 
Professional articles about: waste collection, recycling, biological treatment,  saving energy by smart production with raw materials etc.
 

New Sampling Technique for Coarse Waste Materials from Bales
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Environmental analysis has to deal with the possible sources of error. It is known that the process of sampling is the major source of error (up to 90 % of the total error). The sampling error is scarcely considered, while the insignificant analysis error is included with up to three decimals. However, there are not yet any effective methods to reduce the sampling error, mainly because of the inhomogeneous properties of waste.

The aim of the project was to improve the sampling process with the same or an even higher accuracy of the analysis results.

Improved Eco-Design of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs for Simplifying the Recycling Process
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Due to the increasing numbers of lithium-ion batteries in electric cars as well as in electric and electronic equipment, the design and recycling of batteries is gaining increasing importance. This fact demands for an efficient and holistic battery concept as well as a future concept for recycling and treatment.

A System Model of the Recycling of Critical Raw Materials from Wastes and By-Products in Austria
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The development of the high-technology industry plays an important role for the economic growth particularly in industrialized countries. This industry has a big demand on raw materials which are considered critical due to their economic importance and their associated supply risk (e.g., REE, gallium, germanium, PGE and tantalum). Subsumed under the collective term critical raw materials (CRMs), 14 of these materials were first defined by the Resource Initiative of the European Commission in 2010 and have been updated to 20 in 2014, since the supply with CRMs is crucial for European economies. In consequence the Austrian economic location, being part of the European economic area with a developing high-technology industry also depends in CRMs. Therefore also the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology defined a specific list of materials that are critical or potentially critical for the country and the future manufacture of technological products as well.

Lessons Learned on the Way to Realize and Operate MBT Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Under aspects of climate protection the fermentation process in AD-sections of an MBT should be favoured for the separated organic (wet) fraction. Best performing plants are not only separating some recyclables – in addition to separate collection systems – and producing electricity form the biogas but are also utilizing the heat produced in water cooling circuits and exhaust gas heat. MBT-plants are regarded as a suitable solution to reduce methane-emissions from landfills, if such plants are constructed and operated well and using state-of-the-art emission reduction equipment.

Practices and Problems in MSW Management for Bio-Waste in Turkey
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Regarding the integrated solid waste management in Turkey, tremendous efforts have been given to the transposition and implementation of related EU directives. The “By-law” on General Principles of Waste Management (05.07.2008), the “By-law” on Landfilling of Waste (26.03.2010) and many others have been enacted and the management of municipal solid wastes and other special and hazardous wastes has been improved.

Material vs. Energy Recovery – An Assessment Using Computational Tools NERUDA and JUSTINE
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The paper describes a continuing work on a unique approach of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) Project assessment and related risk analysing. It is based on long time developed computational tools NERUDA and JUSTINE which support decision making in the field of waste Management.

Assessing the Resource Efficiency of Biorefineries Using Organic Residues - Methodology and Examples
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The IEA Bioenergy Task 42 “Biorefining” has the following definition on biorefining: “Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals, and materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat)”. Various types of organic residues are a sustainable resource that offers great opportunities for a comprehensive product portfolio to satisfy the different needs in a future BioEconomy.

European Harmonization of Methods to Quantify Methane Emissions from Biogas Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
In the past years, attempts were undertaken to quantify single emission sources as well as overall emissions from biogas plants using on-site (direct) and remote sensing (indirect) methods. While measurements on site often focus on one type of CH4 sources, remote sensing methods cover the overall emission plume. Among the current available emission measurement techniques, none is in a position to be recognized as the best international reference. Therefore, the establishment of a scientifically based standardization and harmonization of methods would greatly contribute to the assessment of the fugitive emissions from biogas plants.

Solid Recovered Fuel – Optimization of Plants in the Polish Economic Reality
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Waste management and district heating systems, especially in scope of smaller facilities, require a thorough modernization. In addition, the existing model of these systems, especially for small and medium-territorial units, is not able to meet new requirements of the EU policy in the field of resources and energy efficiency. It is therefore necessary to seek for the new model which quality will be closer to the requirements of the overall strategy of the European Commission, whose key elements includes the impact of the project on the social prosperity and the preservation of the principles of sustainable development.

Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

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