Dr. Ella Stengler CEWEP Confederation of European Waste to Energy Plants
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Waste-to-Resources 2017 Ways for increased material recycling of material flows from MBTMatthias Kühle-Weidemeier
By implementing modern thermal and non-thermal waste treatment technologies, waste management hast made a big leap forward. In the last two decades, Central Europe has been the motor of the development. The first decade of this century has been a period of development and installation of new processes in numerous locations. This was followed by nearly a decade of minor progress. This article will analyse the current situation and show how higher recycling rates even from mixed and residual waste can be achieved.
Co-incineration in cement plantsMartin Oerter
Over the last decades the German cement industry has gained lots of experience in the use of alternative fuels in the clinker burning process. The share of suitable alternative fuels could be increased continuously.
Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben Solid Recovered Fuel – Optimization of Plants in the Polish Economic RealityArtur GradziÅ„ski
Waste management and district heating systems, especially in scope of smaller facilities, require a thorough modernization. In addition, the existing model of these systems, especially for small and medium-territorial units, is not able to meet new requirements of the EU policy in the field of resources and energy efficiency. It is therefore necessary to seek for the new model which quality will be closer to the requirements of the overall strategy of the European Commission, whose key elements includes the impact of the project on the social prosperity and the preservation of the principles of sustainable development.
Experts to topic
Atefeh Alghasi kianzist
M.Sc. Nemanja Stipic Deutsches Institut für Textil- und Faserforschung Denkendorf (DITF)
Dr. Athanasios Bourtsalas Imperial College London/ Columbia University
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft New Waste-to-Energy Facility Energy Works Hull, United KingdomAdam Shore
Energy Works Hull (the Project) is a milestone project for the UK’s waste and renewable energy sector. It will be one of the largest gasification facilities receiving MSW in the UK, indeed in Europe. It is one of the first advanced conversion technology Projects to receive its renewable electricity subsidies through a Contract for Difference, the mechanism by which the UK Government determined to move from Renewable Obligation Certificates following its Electricity Market Reform process. It also plays a significant part of the urban regeneration of the City of Hull. The level of community engagement and benefit has resulted in the project receiving a GBP19.9M grant from the European Union’s Regional Development Fund.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Use of a Fabric Filter for the Sorption – What Has to be Considered? – Experiences and Solutions –Dipl.-Ing. Rüdiger Margraf
In almost all flue gas cleaning systems installed at WtE-plants, the fabric filters are central components. A good example for this is the conditioned dry sorption process which is currently preferentially used in Europe. Within the filter not only the particles and the particulate heavy metals are separated from the gas flow, but also all reaction products resulting from the separation of gaseous pollutants such as HF, HCl, SOx, heavy metals and in this respect particularly Hg as well as PCDD/PCDF. In addition to this the fabric filter constitutes an excellent reaction chamber with high additive powder density in the filter cake.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Enhancing of the Energy Efficiency of an Existing Waste Incineration Plant by Retrofitting with a District Heating NetworkProf. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Rommel, Thorsten Freudenberger, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Markus Hertel, Thomas Moritz
The German Cycle Economy Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz KrWG) and discussions on the turn of local energy policies led to intensive examination of options for optimising utilisation of heat produced by the waste incineration plant (MKW) in Weißenhorn. This has been carried out by the waste management firm(Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb – AWB) of the district of Neu-Ulm over a long period of time. This was also prompted by knowledge that utilisation of already generated energy in the form of combined heat and power generation (CHP) is one of the most efficient ways of achieving climate protection targets. This results from considering which courses of action are available for climate protection.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants ConstructionChristophe Cord´Homme
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National AuthoritiesDipl.-Ing. Dr. Johann Fellner, Professor Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Rechberger, Therese Schwarzböck
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy EnvironmentsIain Hall, Kwang Han, Dr. Tri Shrestha
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Development of Waste-to-Energy ProjectsTrimurti Irzan, Martina de Giovanni, Lukas Schwank
The first objective of waste management must always be to protect society and the health of individuals from harmful substances contained in the waste. Along the various methods around the globe with which waste has been treated the waste pyramid or waste management hierarchy has become widely accepted as the governing principle for waste management in modern societies. These principles have also been integrated in the European waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. At the bottom of the pyramid lays disposal of waste, meaning it is the least favourable option to treat a primary waste. However this does not mean implementing the waste pyramid prohibits disposal. It merely means that before disposal all other meaningful options are exhausted, and the quantity has been minimized.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste IncinerationProfessor Dr.-Ing. Rudi Karpf, Andreas Wiedl
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting SystemMasato Katafuchi, Prof. Stanislaw Stryczek, Radoslaw Mróz, Wojciech Wons
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future PotentialDr. Martin Pavlas, Ondrej Putna, Jiri Kropác, Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Petr Stehlik
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Feasability Study of Capturing CO2 from the Klemetsrud CHP Waste-to-Energy Plant in OsloJohnny Stuen
The municipality of Oslo by Energigjennvinningsetaten (EGE) was in December 2015 awarded funding from Gassnova – a state owned company that coordinates the Norwegian CCS-work – to conduct a feasibility study. The purpose of the feasibility study was to demonstrate at least one workable solution for carbon capture from energy recovery for waste, with technical descriptions, cost estimates, project plan and plan and budget for the next phase.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Initial Operating Experience with the New Polish Waste-to-Energy PlantsProf. Ph. D., Eur. Ing. (Dr.-Ing. habil.) Tadeusz Pajak, MichaÅ‚ Jurczyk
Waste-to-Energy plants are an integral part of modern municipal Waste Management Systems. Today recycling and energy recovery from waste are the only methods of dealing with municipal waste. This is demonstrated by Waste Management Systems in countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Austria, where the municipal waste management is limited solely to recycling and energy recovery from waste. The currently discussed concept of the latest circular economy package can hardly change anything in this matter. Poland, as one of the leaders among the new EU member states (since 2004), has still a lot to do within the scope of recycling and waste-to-energy.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Overview of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Processes for Thermal Disposal of WasteDr. Jürgen Vehlow
Thermal treatment of waste started in the 1870s in England with the first waste incineration plants and this technology was in short time adopted by many industrialised countries. Starting in the late 1970s waste incineration was blamed for emission of toxic compounds, in particular of dioxins, and public pressure initiated the decree of more and more stringent air emission standards in all countries which, again, induced significant improvement of the environmental performance of waste incineration.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Brave New World – Selected Jurisdictional Pitfalls when Acting on International Waste-to-Energy ProjectsDr. Alexander Stefan Rieger, Dr. Tobias Faber
Over the last few years, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) projects became increasingly international. In times of low interest rates, solid infrastructure projects with their fix return rates are more and more attractive to project developers, international investors as well as EPC and O&M contractors. They attract financial and strategic investors which would otherwise not turn towards these rather long-term investments. Therefore, a continuously increasing number of international players from different jurisdictions is entering the global playing field.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Measures to Implement an Advanced Waste Management System in the Czech RepublicJaromír Manhart
The Czech Republic is now preparing the new complete revision of waste law.
The transformation of the waste management into the circular economy started through the legislative process in June 2016. Waste management plan of the Czech Republic for 2015 to 2024 clearly specifies waste strategy and priorities for the country. Thus, in the Act on waste the ban on landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste in 2024, obligatory separate collection of main municipal waste streams including biowaste since 2015 and currently proposed increase of waste landfilling tax with strict recycling targets already in 2018 are only the first milestones leading to smarter waste future in the Czech Republic.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Manufacturing of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) for Energy Recovery ProcessesDipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
This contribution describes manufacturing processes and quality of three types of
Solid Recovered Fuels – i.e. SRF low quality, SRF medium quality and SRF premium
quality – that are used in energy recovery plants. In total, two case studies are reported.
First case study is about the external processing and confectioning of non-hazardous
household, industrial and commercial mixed wastes as well as the internal treatment
and homogenisation of various waste fractions at the incineration plant for production
of SRF low quality that is utilized in a Waste to Energy (WtE) stationary Fluidized Bed
Incinerator. In the second case study, production of SRF medium quality and SRF premium
quality that are used for substitution of primary fuels like coal and petrol coke
in the cement kiln is described. Finally, data on SRF quality of all three investigated
waste types will be summarized and discussed.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification TechnologyNobuhiro Tanigaki, Ryo Makishi, Toshimi Nagata
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft How to Optimize Recycling Rates Using Waste IncinerationTill Lemme, Wilfried Frehmann
The improvement of recycling and reuse of waste is becoming more and more important and it is generally preferred compared to waste incineration. In fact, the incineration of waste is often considered the last alternative when recycling of a certain waste fraction is technically not possible or there is simply no market for the corresponding fraction of the waste. But instead of considering waste incineration as being contradictory to recycling, it may also be considered as an alternative way to achieve higher recycling rates. The main goal of waste to energy is the use of the chemical energy contained in the carbon and drogen, and transfer this into thermal energy. But all other elements contained in the waste will of course also be found in the various residue streams leaving the plant. For these residue streams there are possibilities for further treatment, enabling Separation of certain elements, improvement of the quality of a residue stream to allow re-use on the market or even potential for the preparation of a new product.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Refuse Derived Fuel – A European Market Heading for OvercapacityMike Brown
During the last five years, the residual waste market has been transformed from one whose geography was largely defined by a country’s borders to one that has become truly European in nature. Increasing, and now significant, tonnages of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) are moving across national boundaries. In the UK, for example, the export of RDF and SRF has grown from 250,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) in 2011 to 3.4 million tpa in 2015.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Development of Waste Management in the Arab RegionDr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Ayman Elnaas, Engineer Safwat Hemidat
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride QualityInnes Deans, Ioannis Dimas, Costas Velis
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Operating Experience from the World´s Largest Waste Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor in VästeråsDr. Markus BolhÃ r-Nordenkampf, Tapani Nummelin, Tero Luomaharju, Jussi Vilijanen
Valmet Power has a long experience in fluidized bed combustion. Since 1980’s both Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers have been used in combustion for various types of solid fuels, from fossil fuels to biomass and nowadays more and more for recovered fuels like demolition wood and SRF.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Situation and Waste Management Strategy of the Czech Republic and Experience in Planning, Construction and Operation of WtE and SRF PlantsProfessor Ing. Ph.D. Dagmar Juchelková, Professor Ing. Helena Raclavská, Radim Kovarík, Pavel Bartoš
Waste utilization has the potential of savings in using fossil fuels. In the Czech Republic, three incinerators of municipal waste are operating currently, there are many projects for implementation of others; unfortunately, they usually fail to succeed due to the economic evaluation. Support for the construction of new facilities for thermal treatment of waste is practically non-existent. Apparently, this could be solved through a number of alternative approaches – combined combustion, processing of sorted waste; however, a conceptual solution is still missing. The article aims to present the current situation and potential for the future.
TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft Current Developments in European Waste-to-EnergyFerdinand Kleppmann, Dr. Ella Stengler
Europe’s future Circular Economy package should be ambitious in minimising landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste, in order to maximise the use of waste as a resource. It should take a holistic approach that considers supply of raw materials as well as supply of secure and sustainable energy, which is an important part of the European Energy Union. This approach would be in line with Better Regulation and would benefit the environment, jobs and growth in Europe.